Vaccinate to eradicate disease

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Vaccinate to eradicate disease

Farmers are looking forward to a prosperous spring and summer season. With good rainfall comes an increase in insect and tick populations. Midges, mosquitoes, biting flies and ticks transmit diseases and farmers should vaccinate their animals against these diseases.

 

 

Examples of these diseases are:

 

Insect transmitted diseases: Blue tongue, Rift Valley fever, lumpy skin disease, ephemeral fever (three-day-stiff-sickness), nagana, anaplasmosis and African horse sickness.

 

Tick transmitted diseases: African and Asiatic red water, anaplasmosis, heart water and corridor disease.

 

It is important that farmers discuss vaccination and treatment programmes with their veterinarian. Early clinical signs of these diseases should be recognised so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. There is no specific treatment for viral diseases; it is important that animals be vaccinated in time to prevent disease outbreaks.

 

The presence of bovine brucellosis, Brucella ovis (ram’s disease), trichomonosis, vibriosis, Johne’s disease in herds is of great concern. All animal owners and breeding societies together with private and state veterinary services should work together to fight and eradicate diseases.

 

Remember, diseases are stumbling blocks in the way of achieving our goal of food security, food safety and economic stability. – Ruvasa

 

Source: Agriorbit

Effect of body weight and body condition on conception rate

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

The effect of body weight and body condition on conception rate

Dr Vlok Ferreira, National Technical Manager – Ruminants, of RCL Foods, Molatek and Epol, attended the Agri-Expo on Friday the 12th of October to present a talk on “Factors that influence cow productivity”. He discussed the importance of understanding cow productivity; highlighting that in beef cattle productivity can be measured as kg per calf weaned per large stock unit mated (KgC/LSU). Dr Ferreira also noted that implementing an effective replacement heifer program may be a big challenge for beef cattle farmers, and is a challenge that needs to be addressed.

 

The topics that were covered include:

 

  1. Heritable traits that can influence cow productivity
  2. How improving cow productivity reduces environmental impact
  3. How the age at which a cow reaches maturity influences productivity
  4. Effect of body weight and body condition on conception rate

 

In this article we discuss the effect of proper body condition and weight on conception rates.

Proper nutrition is not to be underestimated when it comes to the conception rate of heifers

In a herd of 98 heifers, the average weight of the herd was 341 kg. It was found that 63 out of the 98 cows (64%) conceived when they had a weight of 350 kg at service. Those animals that did not conceive (36% of the herd) had an average weight of 327 kg at service.

 

As we can see, the weight at mating has a direct impact on whether the heifer conceives or not and the health and body condition of the cow is highly important when it comes to mating.

The effect of body condition score (BCS) on conception rate

It was found that for a cow to conceive during the next cycle, it is optimal for the cow to have a body condition score of 3.5 at calving on a scale of 1 is thin and 5 is fat. This had a resulting conception rate of 80%.
Similarly, body condition score during mating had an influence on the conception rate, with a BCS of 3.5 resulting in a conception rate of 100%.

 

This proves that the optimal BCS for a cow to conceive, both at calving and at mating, is a score of 3.5.

 

It is of utmost importance that the body condition score (BCS) not be too low, as it will prevent the cow from conceiving.

Heifer Nutritional Requirements

A heifer’s nutritional requirements are going to depend on the size of her body frame and her weight. Logically, it makes sense that an animal with a larger frame is going to have slightly higher requirements than animals that have a smaller frame.

 

Supplementing heifer diets:

Working on the assumption that the heifer weighs 400 kg and is grazing on winter veld (94.1% protein), she will have a daily intake of 7.2 kg of grazing, of which 300 g is protein and 3 kg is TDN (Total Digestible Nutrients) and 6.3 MJ/kg pasture.

 

Since the heifer’s protein requirements need to be met, the protein content of the grazing needs to be calculated. Crop residues in winter are low in protein, and a protein supplement will be needed to ensure that no nutritional deficiencies develop.

 

Suggested supplementation includes:
250 – 300 g Protein/day
1 – 1.5 kg TDN/day
12 – 18 MJ/day
3 – 5 g Phosphorous/day

First calf feed requirements

A first calf heifer will be smaller than a mature cow, but will have nutritional requirements very similar to that of a mature cow due to the fact that she is still growing, carrying a growing foetus and producing milk. In fact, the protein and calcium requirements of a first calf heifer will be higher than that of a mature cow.

Many supplementation practices are ineffective for heifers

The intake of standard winter protein licks for maintenance by heifers is too low, and very often the importance of trace minerals is overlooked and supplementation is inadequate.
A USDA study found that only 8% of beef farmers that sent in feed samples for analysis indicated that the poor performance of their animals could possibly be linked to insufficient trace minerals in the diet.

The effect of phosphate supplementation on heifer performance

The proper supplementation of phosphate is undeniably important in ensuring a proper calving percentage. Not only has phosphate been linked to weight gain, but also to an improved calving rate. If no phosphate is supplemented, the calving percentage of the herd is 52.9%, with cows calving every second year only. The lack of phosphate means that cows spend the year not in calf building up their phosphate reserves again. If cows are properly supplemented with phosphate, the calving percentage is increased to 75.6%. Not only does their dry matter increase by 25%, but their body weight at calving increases with 15% as well. The average daily gain of cows with proper phosphate supplementation has been shown to increase with 130 – 320 g/day.
Cattle grazing on pasture, specifically young, green pasture, should be supplemented with a source of phosphate, like a phosphate lick. Veld pasture is phosphate-deficient, resulting in a deficiency in the diet of the cow.

 

For more information visit our Epol or Molatek websites or contact Dr Vlok Ferreira at Vlok.Ferreira@rclfoods.com

 

Read part 1 (Heritable traits that can influence cow productivity) here.

The Importance of Proper Drought Supplementation

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Importance of proper Drought Supplementation:

Despite the fact that South Africa boasts dams that are significantly fuller compared to this time last year, the threat of drought is something that every farmer dreads. With an average annual rainfall of 450 mm, South Africa is an arid region prone to droughts, which many South Africans seem to forget.

 

Proper drought supplementation of animals grazing in drought-stricken areas is of the highest importance, to minimise animal loss and the loss of condition of grazing animals as much as possible. Veld quality is compromised during periods of drought and may have a number of consequences such as protein shortages, energy shortages as well as mineral deficiencies.

What to supplement your livestock with:

Apart from the sheer bulk of food that animals need to consume every day, there is also a nutritional aspect that the grazing needs to comply with. It is easy for ruminants to develop digestive imbalances and for this reason we suggest Molatek’s drought supplement.
The drought supplement is specifically designed to provide a balanced supplement. It is important to note that the amount of roughage available and the quality thereof will influence the level of supplementation. A technical advisor in your area will be able to assist you with this. Click here to find your nearest technical adviser.

The advantages of feeding Molatek Drought Supplement:

  • It is highly palatable and stimulates dry matter intake
  • The drought supplement ensures that the energy and protein needs of an animal are met during times of drought
  • Ruminal fermentation by rumen microbes is improved and the animal is able to optimise the urea as a source of protein
  • Drought supplement prevents the development of dry gall sickness

It should be noted that this supplementation shows an increase in results as the quality of the veld gets improves.

When to start feeding:

It is best to start supplementing the diet of grazing animals before they lose too much body condition, or lose proper function of the gut. It is a good practice to adapt the animals slowly to a new diet, especially one that contains urea, as the rumen microbes will also have to adapt.

Which animals to feed

A hierarchy is established during drought periods and this needs to be upheld to ensure minimum loss. Prioritise animals that are the most productive and will suffer the most from being underfed.
Here is a guideline to determine which animals should get preference:

 

  1. Lactating and pregnant females
  2. Replacement animals (young ewes and heifers) that are expensive to replace
  3. Mature and dry animals
  4. Young steers
  5. Old and infertile animals should be sold as early as possible

When to stop supplementation:

It is important to remember that it takes time for the veld to be restored to its optimal condition and young, green veld that grows after rain is low in energy. For this reason we recommend a continued supplementation following the rains. Please contact your technical advisor for more information. Click here to find your nearest technical advisor.

What is Non-Protein Nitrogen?

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

What is Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN)?

Guaranteed that if you handle animal feed on a regular basis you will have seen the letters NPN on the packaging. NPN stands for Non-Protein Nitrogen, so what do you need to know about it?

Where does NPN come from?

Feed-grade urea is most commonly used as a source of NPN, but other sources are also available. Ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride and mono-ammonium phosphate are among other sourecs of NPN. Molatek, uses only feed-grade urea.

Why is NPN included in animal feed?

Non-ruminants like humans, pigs and poultry can only utilise amino acids from natural protein sources like soya bean oilcake and cottonseed oilcake. On the other hand, ruminants like cattle, sheep and goats can utilise non-protein nitrogen sources thanks to ruminal microbes. These are microbes like protozoa and bacteria found in the rumen of the animal that can use NPN to synthesise protein. This is fortunate for the animal because it means that a portion of their diet doesn’t have to come from a natural protein source – their rumen microbes make it for them.

 

 

NPN is included in feed because it is more economical than feeding natural protein. NPN has been added to ruminal feeds for years and is not harmful to the animal as long as it is carefully managed.

Why is there a warning on the label?

Careful management of NPN is essential to ensure that urea toxicity does not occur. When too much urea is eaten by a ruminant, ammonia is produced by the rumen microbes and results in hyperammonemia, also known as urea poisoning, if absorbed.

Always be sure to follow the guidelines according to the feed manufacturer’s feeding recommendations and be sure to store fertilisers and NPN containing feeds safely away from ruminants.

Supplementing for your veld type

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Do you know how to supplement for your veld type?

Farmer or producers that use natural grazing as the bulk of the feed source for their animals need to understand the type of veld that they are working with, and what nutritional value it has for their animals.

In South Africa we have three types of veld, namely

  • Sweetveld
  • Sourveld
  • Mixedveld (combination of sweetveld and sourveld)

Sweetveld

Sweetveld is found in areas of low rainfall and the nutritional value of the veld is retained through maturity. It is also highly palatable to grazing animals.

 

Possible problems:

Because sweetveld occurs in areas of low rainfall, droughts are bound to occur and may result in fodder shortages. The result is that animals do not have access to enough grazing material.

 

Solution:

It is also common for mineral shortages to occur during summer and protein shortages during winter, for this reason we recommend a Molatek Foslick (V16059), and Molatek Fosblock (V22502 in summer or a good quality protein lick (V16048) during winter of which Molatek has many to offer. Contact your technical advisor for advice as to which would suit your animals best, to ensure that no nutritional deficiencies develop.

 

Sourveld

Sourveld is found in areas of high rainfall and loses some of its nutritional value throughout maturity. Sourveld is only palatable during the growing season.

 

Possible problems:

During winter the protein content of the veld decreases as well as the digestibility. This means that although the grazing material is readily available, the animals do not want to graze on the veld.

 

Solution:

Animals on sourveld are bound to lose condition during the winter and strategies should be put in place to ensure that body condition is conserved. It is good practice to supplement a protein lick like Molatek Winlick 50 ( V12086) Contact your Molatek technical advisor for guidance as to which would suit your animals best.

It is important to know what sort of veld you are using, in order to best supplement the diet of your herd or flock, should a shortage of grazing material arise.

 

Here is a rough guideline for the provinces and their veld types:

Western Cape: Sweetveld
Eastern Cape: Western region – Sweetveld
Eastern region- Sourveld
KZN: Sourveld, mixed veld and sweetveld
Mpumalanga: Sourveld
Limpopo: Mixed veld
Gauteng: Sourveld
North West: Western region – Sweetveld
Eastern region – Mixed veld
Free State: Western region – Sweetveld
Eastern region – Mixed veld and sourveld
Northern Cape: Sweetveld

Sheep farming – what you need to know

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Dr Vlok Ferreira

National Technical Manager Ruminants, RCL Foods

 

Many communal farmers and even rural residents with hopes of land in the future, are thinking of farming with sheep.  A lot of things need to be considered before you invest in a sheep farming enterprise.

Evaluating your resources

 

To run a successful sheep enterprise, you will want to efficiently produce high-quality lamb and wool that can be profitably marketed.  The first step is to evaluate the resources you have available.  Then you’ll need to design a sheep production system that will use those resources most efficiently.  The resources that you need to evaluate are:

 

1. Land: How much land is available and what is its productivity.  If all the forage dry matter produced on a hectare of land could be harvested as  hay and measured in tons, you would have an estimate of your land’s productive capacity.  Suppose you have 100 hectare veld pasture, of which 30 ha are low producing pasture and will produce 0.75 t per hectare, 30 ha are average and will produce 1.25 tons per ha and 30 ha are high producing and should produce 2.0 tons per hectare.  The total yearly pasture production would be 30 x 0.75 = 22.5 t, plus 30 x 1.25 = 37.5 t, plus 30 x 2 = 60 t.  This equals a total estimated hay equivalent of 120 tons of which 65% is utilisable by the sheep during grazing.  An average ewe requires 0.75 ton of pasture/year.  So in this example, you should have enough pasture for about 104 ewes (120t x 65% divided by 0.75).  I have chosen 100 ha for ease of calculation.  This is not necessarily an acceptable size for an economical sheep operation.  Remember that in certain areas some of the pasture had to be harvested as forage in the winter.  You must be prepared to provide hay for winter feed in the summer rainfall areas.

 

2. Machinery and Equipment: Do you have the equipment and machinery to harvest hay, cut pastures, etc.?  Or can you hire a contractor to do this?  Or should you plan on purchasing hay?  If you only need about 100 tons of hay, it may be cheaper and easier to buy the hay than to make it.

What about sheep equipment?  You will need proper fences, sorting pens, lambing pens, etc.  You will also need equipment for tail docking, castrating, ear tagging and possibly for shearing.  A building where you can keep all the equipment and sick animals if needed.

 

3. Markets: How will you market your products?  Are you planning to sell feeder lambs, slaughter lambs, breeding stock, wool or all of the above?  Are you planning to sell on a seasonal basis or have a more even cash flour with the lambs for sale throughout the year?  Your market is a valuable resource that must be studied.

 

4. Labour: Do you have the time to properly care for the sheep?  Sheep probably respond more to proper care and attention than any other farm animal.  For the most part, the labour is not hard, but they require quality time and labour.  You must have time to do the jobs when required and not put them off until next week or next month.  You must have time to observe the animals and recognize their requirements.

 

5. Capital: Do you have the capital or money available to get started, hold you until the sheep are in full production and may be see you through some dips or drought?  You need to carefully evaluate your financial resources before starting a farming enterprise.  Compare sheep farming with other alternatives.

 

6. Attitude: What is your attitude towards sheep farming?  Do you like them? Would you be willing to brave cold rains to feed and care for them?  Would you be willing to miss a social event to be sure the sheep were protected from marauding dogs?  If you do not have a positive attitude, do not read any further.

Establishing Production Goals and Management Systems

Once you evaluate your resources, you can set-up an overall management system that will use them efficiently and be profitable.  Sheep are amazingly adaptable.  Using different breeds and systems, you can set and meet your production goals.  The goals you set will depend on your resources, abilities, the ability of the sheep and the products you hope to produce.

Product choices:

 

1. Lamb for meat; Sell feeder lambs at 25-30 kg or keep and feed to 40-45 kg live weight. Market your lambs at Easter or other celebration times.

 

2. Breeding stock; both registered and/or commercial.

  • Wool; probably sold during a wool marketing agent or develop a speciality market for spinning or felting.3. Milk; Sheep’s milk for cheese is popular in some areas of the world, but milk breeds aren’t readily available in South Africa. However, interest is increasing.

The level of production, especially of lamb, can vary from less than one lamb per ewe per year to more than two lambs per ewe per year.  Choosing the product to be produced and a production goal depends on the breed of sheep and your management system.  Each breed represents a given genotype that is best in some situations and not in others.  For example, if you want to produce only fine wool, Merino might be the breed of choice.  A production system may use a combination of breeds to meet specific goals.  Of course, your success will ultimately depend on good management, nutrition, technology, disease control and marketing.  The management system you choose have to make maximum use of the natural pasture growth.  For example in the summer rainfall area, lamb in May if you have maize crop residues available and market lambs in November / December. In this example without any crop residues it is better to lamb in the spring when green veld pasture is available.

 

Any successful sheep producer keeps up with day-to-day management tasks, and does them properly. Can you assist a ewe before and after lambing if needed or recognize more serious problems?

 

  • Docking: How do you remove a tail from a young lamb?
  • Vaccination: Can you recognize the important diseases?  Do you have a vaccination schedule?
  • Weaning: Do you know about the weaning process?
  • Ram care: Can you care for rams even during the non-breeding season?
  • Internal and external parasite control: Every sheep has parasites.  Can you set up an effective control program?

    Markets for Lamb and Wool

Most wool is marketed through one of the wool marketing agents, although some is sold to other buyers or, hand-spinners, and very small quantities are custom made into yarn, cloth or blankets.

Lamb markets need further development and require a more consistent supply.  Lambs can be marketed through local auctions, to large abattoirs or directly to the consumer.

Where Do You Get Sheep?

If you decide to start a sheep enterprise, where you get your starter flock is critical.  It can be difficult to get exactly the breed you want and number you want at a reasonable cost.  Some beginning producers simply started with whatever sheep are available and set up a breeding program to create the preferred genotypes by proper ram selection and careful culling.  Obtaining the proper sheep is sometimes difficult, but exceedingly important.  The desirable sheep characteristics are:

 

  • A long breeding season or a year round breeding season
  • multiple births
  • early sexual maturity
  • high average daily gains
  • desirable meat-type carcasses

    Feeding Sheep

Sheep are efficient users of roughage.  In fact, they can get a larger portion of their nutrients from pasture and hay than beef cattle.  They eat most of the weeds and, with proper pasture management, can significantly boost production of many native pastures over the long term.

The roughage must, at certain times, be supplemented with minerals, proteins and/or grains, or other concentrated feeds to meet nutritional requirements, especially for ewes during late pregnancy or lactation and for rapidly growing lambs.  Salt/mineral combinations with the needed trace elements are available.  Copper is toxic to sheep at lower concentration than it is for most other livestock.  So read labels to be sure copper levels will not harm sheep.

Smaller farms usually use small square bales, although big round bales are common.  The big round bales are popular and require little labour if you have the right handling equipment.

A beginning sheep producer must also decide whether harvested forage should be purchased or produced.  Farmers who are adding on a sheep enterprise probably already have the production capability needed, but others may be wise to purchase hay.  If you start with 50 or fewer ewes, purchasing extra feed if needed seems reasonable.  Remember that any investment in equipment must be paid for by the sheep.  A small flock cannot cover the costs of large tractors, forage harvesters and other major equipment.

Information

The best information often comes from other sheep farmers in your area who are willing to spend some of their valuable time with you and help you make decisions.  Consider volunteering to work with another sheep farmer for a few weeks to learn more about the job.

Vergemaklik aanvulling tydens dragtigheid en laktasie

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Deur dr Vlok Ferreira, nasionale tegniese bestuurder herkouers, RCL Foods Veevoerafdeling

Kies lekke volgens seisoene – Dr Vlok Ferreira

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Molatek Voerskenking – Sutherland

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Afrond van ou koeie  (2014)

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Oorsig

 

Gedurende 2014 is ‘n studie is gedoen om te bepaal of ou koeie suksesvol afgerond kan word met verlaagde kragvoerinname.  Hoewel verlaagde kragvoerinnames wel diere kon afrond het hierdie rantsoene ekonomies wesenlik swakker presteer. ’n Standaard aftondrantsoen soos gevoer vir speenkalwers het by die beste ekonomies presteer vir die afronding van ou koeie.  

 

 

  1. Agtergrond

 

Die afrond van ou koeie wat hoofsaaklik as C3 en vetter bemark word is ’n algemene praktyk.  Hoewel baie data bestaan vir die beste praktyk rondom afrond van speenkalwers is weinig praktykdata beskikbaar vir die beste afrondpraktyk / rantsoensamestelling vir ou koeie.  ’n Studie is gedurende 2014 onderneem om spesifiek Molatek produkte te gebruik vir die bepaling van die beste formulasie vir afrond van ou koeie. Uiteenlopende rantsoene is gebruik om ’n basislyn neer te sit t.o.v. diereprestasie met verlaagde proteïen en verhoogde veselinsluitings in die rantsoen.

 

 

  1. Doel

 

  • Bepaling van beste afrondrantsoen vir afrond van ou koeie
  • Beste praktyk vir afrond van ou koeie

 

  1. Proefprosedure

 

  • Lokaliteit

 

Die proef is uitgevoer by ’n medewerker met goeie standaard voerkraal praktyke en rekordhouding kapasiteit. Die studie is gedoen te Koppies in die sentrale binneland van Suid – Afrika gedurende die laat winter van 2014. Diere is onder normale voerkraal toestande met voldoening aan die kode vir beste voerkraalpraktyk gevoer.

 

  • Diere

 

Meduimraam uitskotkoeie uit ’n kommersiële kudde in die suid Vrystaat is gebruik. Die kudde is bestuur word volgens goeie veekundige praktyke waarvan dragtigheids ondersoeke gedoen word en droë diere uitgeskot word.  Hoewel hoofsaaklik ouer diere was dit nie swak slytbekkoeie gewees nie maar diere wat uit die kudde geskot is weens hul dragtigheidstatus.   Figuur 1 toon die proefdiere as goeie kwaliteit kommersiële diere wat maer was weens kalwers wat net afgespeen was en ‘n ruvoertekort.

 

 

 

 

Figuur 1. Koeie in studie gebruik.

 

 

 

 

  • Behandelings

 

Diere is ewekansig in drie groepe verdeel met 19 diere per groep. Tabel 1 toon die onderskeie rantsoene. Gepoelde monsters van die onderskeie behandelings is oor die voertydperk ewekansig versamel om formulsies te bevestig wat op standaard gevind was. Geen implantaat is gebruik nie.

 

Weens praktiese bestuur en benutting van data in lesings sal na die onderskeie behandelings in kleurkodes verwys word.

 

  • Die Groen behandeling se beginsel was ’n rantsoen met verlaagde proteïen waarvan die energiewaarde hoog gehou is met hoër ruvoerinsluitings om die totale kragvoerinname te beperk.
  • Die Rooi behandeling is ’n standaard afrondrantsoen soos wat vir speenkalwers in ’n voerkraal gevoer sou word.
  • Die Grys behandeling is ’n rantsoen met verlaagde proteïen sowel as energiewaardes met hoë ruvoerinsluitings en geen ionofoor.  Beginsel was ’n lae koste rantsoen om volwasse koeie wat ruvoer gewoond was koste effektief af te rond.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tabel 1.  Rantsoene: Fisiese en chemiese ontledings op ’n droë materiaal basis

 

Ruvoer benut was voersorghumhooi (soortgelyk aan mieliereste) wat grof gemaal was. Dit is lae kwaliteit ruvoer uit ’n voedingsoogpunt.  Dit is die algemene tipe ruvoer wat beskikbaar is en deur produsente benut word in voerkrale. Figuur 2 gee ’n aanduiding van die ruvoer wat gebruik is.

 

Figuur 2. Ruvoer gebruik vir rantsoene in studie

 

 

 

 

Alle diere is met oorplaaitjies gemerk ooreenstemmend in kleur van die groep waarin hy is met ‘n unieke groepsnommer. Diere is bestuur in kleurgroepe ooreenstemmend met die voerproses waarvan voer in sakke met ooreenstemmende kleure gebruik is.  Diere is ge-ent vir longverwante voerkraal siektes.

 

 

3.4 Data

 

Rekords bygehou:

  • Diere se gewigte, na die aanpassingsfase van 14 dae is diere op ‘n drie weeklikse basis geweeg.
  • Massas is in die voormiddag op volpensbasis geneem.
  • Aantekening van alle voerinnames per groep op ‘n dagbasis
  • Alle slagdata, rumen sowel as long en lewerdata
  • Aantekening van enige abnormaliteite bv. siek diere wat behandel is ens.
  • Diere se skofhoogte is gemeet tydens aanvang van die studie met subjektiewe puntings gedoen vir :
    • Koplengte
    • Oogplasing
    • Haarkleed
    • Raamtipe
    • Beenstruktuur

 

Weens vrektes en praktiese redes is daar diere onbeplan onttek uit die studie.  Hierdie diere is vir die doel van dataverwerking in totaliteit weggelaat uit die studie.  Voerinnames is bereken op ’n geweegde gemiddelde basis vir ’n spesifieke tydperk vir die spesifieke getal diere teenwoordig in daardie tydperk ten einde ’n betroubare beeld weer te gee.

 

Aangesien die ekonomiese ontleding gebruik word as instrument om praktyke met mekaar te vergelyk is alle vrektes en onttrekkings  wat voorgekom het weggelaat in hierdie berekening.

 

Tensy anders vermeld word voerdata op ‘n “As is” basis aangebied aangesien dit die norm is wat op produksie vlak gebruik word.

 

  1. Resultate

 

Die onderskeie behandelings moet elk as ’n praktyk beskou word en kan nie 100% direk met mekaar vergelyk word nie aangesien daar meer as een verandelike is met potensiële interaksies.

 

 

  • Voerinname

 

Water is by rantsoene gevoeg om stof te bind wat vogpersentasie laat varieer het oor die voerperiode tussen 10 – 15%.   Hierdie is aangepas met die geweegde gemiddeld oor tyd.

 

Figuur 3 toon dat die rooi behandeling ’n voerinname van 14.9 kg per dag gehad het teenoor die ander twee behandelins wat beide 16 kg en meer inname getoon het. Die rede hiervoor is nie voor die handliggend maar beide ander behandelings het verlaagde proteien en laer dightheid voer ontvang. Tabel 2 toon die werklike inname van proteïen en energie op ’n droë basis uitgedruk met proteïen innames wat laer is by die groen en grys behandeling. Die groen behandeling het verhoogde energie iname getoon bo die ander behandelings. Dit wil voorkom uit hierdie data dat diere meer vreet om proteïen inname te bevredig. Met die “swakker” rantsoene kompenseer diere  deur meer te vreet.

 

Figuur 3. Voerinname oor tyd op “As is”

 

 

Tabel 2  Proteïen en Energie innames

 

Kg inname / dier / dag  (Droog)
Groen Rooi Grys
DM Iname / dag  (Kg) 14.6 12.9 13.2
Proteïen inname / dag (Kg) 1.47 1.69 1.17
TVV inname / dag (Kg) 11.88 10.78 10.10

 

 

 

 

Tabel 3 toon die kragvoer tot ruvoer verhoudings in die groen en grys behandelings gepoog het om kragvoer inname te beperk. Ongeag ’n 19% ruvoer insluiting in die groen behandeling was voerinname tot so ’n mate meer dat diere meer kragvoer ingeneem het as die 9% ruvoer insluiting by die rooi behandeling. By die grys behandeling wat die laagste voerdigtheid gehad het, het fisiese beperking waarskynlik ’n rol begin speel hoewel totale inname ook hoër was as in die rooi behandeling.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tabel 3 Kragvoer : Ruvoerverhouding inname

 

 

Rantsoenverdeling
Groen Rooi Grys
% Kragvoer in rantsoen 81% 91% 68%
% Ruvoer in rantsoen 19% 9% 32%
Kg Kragvoer inname / Dag (As Is) 13.6 13.5 10.8
Kg Ruvoer inname / Dag (As Is) 3.3 1.4 5.2

 

Figuur 4 toon die voerinname as persentasie van liggamsmassa van die onderskeie behandelings op ’n droë basis uitgedruk wat data reeds weergegee ondersteun.  Geen abnormaliteite word waargeneem nie behalwe die verhoogde innames van die “swakker” rantsoene.

 

Tabel 4 Droë materiaal inname as % van liggaamsmassa

 

 

 

Van belang om produksie data te verklaar toon figuur 5 die voerinname van die aanpassingsperiode van 14 dae.  Die grys behandeling het veral in week 1 stadig gewees om die rantsoen te vreet met ’n verbetering in week 2. Dit is egter duidelik dat hulle voerinname laag was ten spyte van hoë ruvoerinsluitings. Die groen behandeling se inname was hoog in die aanpassingsfase wat waarskynlik die smaaklikste rantsoen was met hoë energievlakke en lae ionofoor insluitings.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figuur 5. Inname gedurende die aanpassingsfase

 

 

Die voeromsetverhouding van die onderskeie behandelings word in Tabel 4 getoon met die rooi behandeling wat die beste voeromsetverhouding realiseer het. Namate ruvoer toegeneem en kragvoer afgeneem het in die rantsoene, het voeromsetverhouding verswak.

 

Tabel 4. Voeromset verhouding van onderskeie behandelins

 

Groen Rooi Grys
V.O.V (As is)  1 : 9.4 8.2 12.0
V.O.V (Droog)  1 : 8.1 7.2 9.9

 

  • Groei

 

Figuur 6 toon die progresiewe daaglikse toename uitgedruk in kilogram per dag.  Die groen behandeling wat hoë voerinname in die aanpassingsfase gehandhaaf het toon positiewe groei reg van die begin af. Die rooi behandeling het prakties massa gehandhaaf deur die aanpassingsfase.   Die grys behandeling wat swak voerinname in die aanpassing getoon het, het eers massaverlies gehad waarna hul begin groei het.  Dit is bekend dat voerinname in die aanpassing ’n invloed op die res van die voerperiode het.  Hierdie invloed  tesame met ’n laer kwaliteit rantsoen het ’n bydrae tot die swakker diereprestasie van die grys behandeling oor die totale tyd.  Die verskille in diereprestasie het aanleiding gegee dat die grys behandeling 21 dae langer gevoer was as die rooi en groen behandelings ten einde dieselfde slagprestasie te genereer.  Die massatoename van die onderskeie behandelings word opsommend in figuur 7 weergegee met die rooi behandeling wat die beste presteer het teen 1.81 kg / dag. Die groen behandeling het dieselfde diereprestasie as die rooi behaal met 1.8 kg per dag ten koste van ’n verhoogde voerinname. Die grys behandeling se diereprestasie teen 1.33 kg / dag weerspieël die tipe rantoen en inname interaksie wat realiseer het.

 

Figuur 6. Progresiewe GDT van alle behandelings

 

 

Figuur 7. Opsommende groei oor totale tydperk

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Slagdata

 

 

Figuur 8 toon dat die uitslag massas van die onderskeie groepe met geen abnormaliteite nie.  Hou ingedagte dat die grys behandeling 21 langer gevoer was.

 

Figuur 8 Koue karkasmassa van onderskeie behandelings

 

Figuur 9 toon die doel om C3 grade te produseer grootliks bereik was. Die grys behandeling het egter ’n skuif na C2 grade getoon wat aanvaarbaar is en verklaarbaar weens die diereprestasie. Die groen behandeling wat laer proteïen inname as rooi realiseer het neig effens na C2 graderings. Die rooi behandeling het tot C 6 graderings realiseer.  Hierdie is in kontras met die verwagting dat die verhoogde energie inname meer vet graderings moet realiseer wat nie gebeur het nie.

 

Figuur 9 Karkasverspreiding

 

 

Figuur 10 toon dat die uitslagpersentasie gewissel het van 48.5% tot 50%.   Hoewel die amptelike berekening van uitslagpersentasie koue karkasmassa oor leepensmassa is, is die uitslagpersentasies in figuur 10 bereken met volpensmassa weens praktiese oorwegings waar diere vir ’n ver afstand moes ry na die abattoir.  Gekorrigeer vir leepensmassa word uitslagpersentasie in die orde van 51%-52% bereken.

 

Vir praktykverwysing kan nie meer van die hierdie uitslagpersentasies selfs tussen behandelings gemaak word as dat C grade ’n uitslagpersentasie in die orde van 50% het nie.

 

Karkasse is op die slaglyn vir visuele verskille tussen behandelings evalueer met figuur 11 wat toon dat geen verskille voorgekom het nie.  Diere is met wit mielies gevoer en by alle behandelings was karkasvet geel wat kenmerkend is van volwasse diere wat op veld produseer het.

 

Figuur 10. Uitslagpersentasies

 

 

Figuur 11 Verteenwoordigende karkasse van alle behandelings

 

Geen rumenbrand of long abnormaliteite is waargeneem nie.  Dier no 32 het entiritis van die laer spyveteringskanaal getoon wat waarskynlik laat ontwikkel het aangesien haar produksiedata binne norme was.

 

  • Liggaams metings

 

Op die uitsondering van die skofhoogte meting wat fisies gemeet was is alle ander parameters ’n subjektiewe punt toegeken deur dieselfde beoordelaar.  Data is binne elke behandeling ontleed en ook gesamentlik oor alle behandelings.  Die tendens by beide wyses van ontleding was presies dieselfde en die opsommende data sal weergegee word.

 

Geen betroubare korrelasie kon op enige wyse gevind word tussen skouerhoogte en groei soos getoon in Figuur 12. Figuur 12 is saamgestel deur groei van laag na hoog te plaas en ooreenstemmende skouerhoogte te plot.  Die liniêre lyn van die skouerhoogte bly horisontaal wat dui dat daar kort en hoë diere is wat goed en swak groei met geen tendens in ’n spesifieke rigting nie.  Die korrelasie is uitgewerk op -.0012 wat nikseggend is en bloot ’n antwoord op die berekening.

 

Figuur 12. Verwantskap tussen groei en skouerhoogte

 

Tabel 5 toon die grootste verskil vir ander parameters gemeet 122 gram / dag was tussen diere se oogplasing wat in die middel van hul kop geplaas was teenoor hoë oogplasings. Dit korreleer met die aaname dat diere wat ’n middel oogplasing het meer effektief is.

 

Die ander metings nl. koplengte, haarkleed en beenstruktuur se verskille was  kleiner.  Hierdie verskille is nie betekeninsvol en variasie kom binne groepe voor. Geen statisties betroubare korrelasie kon binne hierdie studie tussen die parameters gelys in Tabel 5 gelys en diere se groei gevind word nie. Hoewel dit voorkom of sekere groeperings beter prestasie het sal nie aanbeveel word dat hierdie paramaters gebruik word vir voerkraal seleksie nie aangesien korrelasies te swak was.

 

Tabel 5. Visuele beoordelings versus daaglikse toename.

 

Parameter Meting Gram/ dag verskil
Ooghoogte Middel / Hoog Middel 122 beter as hoog
Koplengte Kort /  Lank Lank 60 beter as kort
Haarkleed Glad / Grof Glad 45 beter as grof
Beenstruktuur Grof / Meduim / Fyn Grof & Fyn 73 beter as meduim

 

Figuur 13 toon die prestasie van diere met klein, meduim en groot raamtipes.  Die klein raamtipe het 340 gram per dag swakker as die meduimraamtipe gegroei. Die grootraamtipes het 110 gram per dag swakker as die meduimraamptipes gegroei. Die rooi behandeling het egter ’n reglynige tendens gehad dat soos raamtipe vergroot het, het groei verbeter.  Dit wil dus lyk of rantsoentipe wel hier ’n invloed kon uitoefen. Weereens was daar redelike verskille binne en tussen groepe hoewel tendense selfde was.

 

Figuur 13 Raamtipe versus groei.

 

  • Ekonomie

Vir die doel van hierdie studie is die ekonomiese prestasie die beste maatstaf om verskille tussen behandelings aan te toon uit ’n praktiese aanwendings oogpunt.  Diereprestasie tussen die groen en rooi behandelings is soortgelyk met grys wat ooglopend swakker is. Heersende roumateriaal en vleispryse vir die tweede helfte van 2014 is gebruik vir die berekening.  Die doel is om met ’n standaard inset en uitsetprys te werk wat die verskil in biologiese prestasie in geldwaarde uitdruk.

 

Tabel 6 wat produksiedata opsom en weergee in ’n ekonomiese syfer toon dat hoewel die groen behandeling biologies soortgelyk as die rooi presteer het daar ’n netto inkomste verskil van  R304 per dier tussen die twee behandlings was.  Die rooi behandeling het R648 per dier rand genereer wat deurslaggewend vir besluitneming is.  Die hoofdrywer vir die verskil is die verhoogde voerinname en swakker v.o.v van die groen behandeling.  Die grys behandeling se langer staantyd, verswakte diereprestasie en hoër voerinname dra alles by tot die swakker inkomste as die ander behandelings.

 

Tabel 6. Ekonomiese ontleding

Groen Rooi Grys
Randsoenkoste/rand/kg * R 1.82 R 2.01 R 1.68
Staandae 85 85 106
GDT (Kg/dag) 1.80 1.81 1.33
Voerverbruik Kg / dag (As Is) 16.9 14.9 16.0
Voerverbruik Kg / dag (Droog) 14.6 12.9 13.2
Voerkoste (Rand/kop) R 2 621 R 2 543 R 2 839
V.O.V (As is)  1 : 9.38 8.23 12.00
V.O.V (Droog)  1 : 8.09 7.17 9.91
Koue karkasmassa (Kg) 278 291 280
Uitslagpersentasi % 48.6% 49.8% 50.2%
Netto R 344 R 648 R 216
* Maalkoste van R100/ton ingereken

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Gevolgtrekking

 

 

  • Standaard afrondrantsoen soos aanbeveel in die Molatek handleiding het die beste groei, beste v.o.v., laagste voerinname en beste ekonomie van alle behandelings in die studie realiseer.
  • Deur proteïen te verlaag en energie hoog te hou in ‘n rantsoen wat goedkoper is, is dieselfde groei as met ’n standaard afrondrantsoen behaal maar gelei tot verhoogde voerinname en ’n 50% verlaging in netto inkomste.
  • Deur ruvoervlakke tot so ’n  mate te verhoog in ’n afrond rantsoen met die doel om kragvoerinname te beperk is diereprestasie benadeel, staantyd met 21 dae verlang en ekonomies prestasie 60% swakker as ’n standaard afrondrantsoen.

 

Teen die agtergrond van die studie moet die gevolgtrekking as rigtinggewend gesien word.  Die gebruik van hoë kwaliteit ruvoer sal waarskynlik ’n positiewe invloed op alternatiewe rantsoene hê.  Tydens die studie is ’n aantal subjektiewe waarnemings gemaak wat van praktiese belang is:

 

 

  • Groter diere se onderhoudsbehoefte is hoër en laat minder vir produkise – moet nie probeer spaar tydens afronding nie.
  • Ou koeie se se proteïen behoefte vir afronding is nie laer as speenkalwers (Op persentasiebasis uitgedruk)
  • Standaard Beesvet 33 afrond rantsoen voldoende vir ou koeie
  • Moenie Sny op die kragvoer komponent

 

  • Groepsdinamika is kompleks by ou koeie

 

  • Meer staanspasie, minimum 20m²
  • Meer Vreetspasie min 40 cm
  • Aanpassing langer – leer krippe
  • Obserweer “pecking order” skuif baie dominante diere uit
  • Verhoogde gesondheidsbestuur
  • Eindresultaat het groot variasie a.g.v variasie waarmee begin
  • 80 dae voerperiode – weereens beinvloed deur waarmee begin
  • Vermy koeie met horings !!
  • Mis kom slapper voor
  • Alle karkasse bly geel ongeag die voerperiode
  • Elke 1% vrekte verlaag netto inkomste met 19%
  • Ou koeie kan laminites ontwikkel