Vaccinate to eradicate disease

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Vaccinate to eradicate disease

Farmers are looking forward to a prosperous spring and summer season. With good rainfall comes an increase in insect and tick populations. Midges, mosquitoes, biting flies and ticks transmit diseases and farmers should vaccinate their animals against these diseases.

 

 

Examples of these diseases are:

 

Insect transmitted diseases: Blue tongue, Rift Valley fever, lumpy skin disease, ephemeral fever (three-day-stiff-sickness), nagana, anaplasmosis and African horse sickness.

 

Tick transmitted diseases: African and Asiatic red water, anaplasmosis, heart water and corridor disease.

 

It is important that farmers discuss vaccination and treatment programmes with their veterinarian. Early clinical signs of these diseases should be recognised so that treatment can be started as soon as possible. There is no specific treatment for viral diseases; it is important that animals be vaccinated in time to prevent disease outbreaks.

 

The presence of bovine brucellosis, Brucella ovis (ram’s disease), trichomonosis, vibriosis, Johne’s disease in herds is of great concern. All animal owners and breeding societies together with private and state veterinary services should work together to fight and eradicate diseases.

 

Remember, diseases are stumbling blocks in the way of achieving our goal of food security, food safety and economic stability. – Ruvasa

 

Source: Agriorbit

The Importance of Proper Drought Supplementation

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Importance of proper Drought Supplementation:

Despite the fact that South Africa boasts dams that are significantly fuller compared to this time last year, the threat of drought is something that every farmer dreads. With an average annual rainfall of 450 mm, South Africa is an arid region prone to droughts, which many South Africans seem to forget.

 

Proper drought supplementation of animals grazing in drought-stricken areas is of the highest importance, to minimise animal loss and the loss of condition of grazing animals as much as possible. Veld quality is compromised during periods of drought and may have a number of consequences such as protein shortages, energy shortages as well as mineral deficiencies.

What to supplement your livestock with:

Apart from the sheer bulk of food that animals need to consume every day, there is also a nutritional aspect that the grazing needs to comply with. It is easy for ruminants to develop digestive imbalances and for this reason we suggest Molatek’s drought supplement.
The drought supplement is specifically designed to provide a balanced supplement. It is important to note that the amount of roughage available and the quality thereof will influence the level of supplementation. A technical advisor in your area will be able to assist you with this. Click here to find your nearest technical adviser.

The advantages of feeding Molatek Drought Supplement:

  • It is highly palatable and stimulates dry matter intake
  • The drought supplement ensures that the energy and protein needs of an animal are met during times of drought
  • Ruminal fermentation by rumen microbes is improved and the animal is able to optimise the urea as a source of protein
  • Drought supplement prevents the development of dry gall sickness

It should be noted that this supplementation shows an increase in results as the quality of the veld gets improves.

When to start feeding:

It is best to start supplementing the diet of grazing animals before they lose too much body condition, or lose proper function of the gut. It is a good practice to adapt the animals slowly to a new diet, especially one that contains urea, as the rumen microbes will also have to adapt.

Which animals to feed

A hierarchy is established during drought periods and this needs to be upheld to ensure minimum loss. Prioritise animals that are the most productive and will suffer the most from being underfed.
Here is a guideline to determine which animals should get preference:

 

  1. Lactating and pregnant females
  2. Replacement animals (young ewes and heifers) that are expensive to replace
  3. Mature and dry animals
  4. Young steers
  5. Old and infertile animals should be sold as early as possible

When to stop supplementation:

It is important to remember that it takes time for the veld to be restored to its optimal condition and young, green veld that grows after rain is low in energy. For this reason we recommend a continued supplementation following the rains. Please contact your technical advisor for more information. Click here to find your nearest technical advisor.

What is Non-Protein Nitrogen?

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

What is Non-Protein Nitrogen (NPN)?

Guaranteed that if you handle animal feed on a regular basis you will have seen the letters NPN on the packaging. NPN stands for Non-Protein Nitrogen, so what do you need to know about it?

Where does NPN come from?

Feed-grade urea is most commonly used as a source of NPN, but other sources are also available. Ammonium sulphate, ammonium chloride and mono-ammonium phosphate are among other sourecs of NPN. Molatek, uses only feed-grade urea.

Why is NPN included in animal feed?

Non-ruminants like humans, pigs and poultry can only utilise amino acids from natural protein sources like soya bean oilcake and cottonseed oilcake. On the other hand, ruminants like cattle, sheep and goats can utilise non-protein nitrogen sources thanks to ruminal microbes. These are microbes like protozoa and bacteria found in the rumen of the animal that can use NPN to synthesise protein. This is fortunate for the animal because it means that a portion of their diet doesn’t have to come from a natural protein source – their rumen microbes make it for them.

 

 

NPN is included in feed because it is more economical than feeding natural protein. NPN has been added to ruminal feeds for years and is not harmful to the animal as long as it is carefully managed.

Why is there a warning on the label?

Careful management of NPN is essential to ensure that urea toxicity does not occur. When too much urea is eaten by a ruminant, ammonia is produced by the rumen microbes and results in hyperammonemia, also known as urea poisoning, if absorbed.

Always be sure to follow the guidelines according to the feed manufacturer’s feeding recommendations and be sure to store fertilisers and NPN containing feeds safely away from ruminants.

Supplementing for your veld type

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Do you know how to supplement for your veld type?

Farmer or producers that use natural grazing as the bulk of the feed source for their animals need to understand the type of veld that they are working with, and what nutritional value it has for their animals.

In South Africa we have three types of veld, namely

  • Sweetveld
  • Sourveld
  • Mixedveld (combination of sweetveld and sourveld)

Sweetveld

Sweetveld is found in areas of low rainfall and the nutritional value of the veld is retained through maturity. It is also highly palatable to grazing animals.

 

Possible problems:

Because sweetveld occurs in areas of low rainfall, droughts are bound to occur and may result in fodder shortages. The result is that animals do not have access to enough grazing material.

 

Solution:

It is also common for mineral shortages to occur during summer and protein shortages during winter, for this reason we recommend a Molatek Foslick (V16059), and Molatek Fosblock (V22502 in summer or a good quality protein lick (V16048) during winter of which Molatek has many to offer. Contact your technical advisor for advice as to which would suit your animals best, to ensure that no nutritional deficiencies develop.

 

Sourveld

Sourveld is found in areas of high rainfall and loses some of its nutritional value throughout maturity. Sourveld is only palatable during the growing season.

 

Possible problems:

During winter the protein content of the veld decreases as well as the digestibility. This means that although the grazing material is readily available, the animals do not want to graze on the veld.

 

Solution:

Animals on sourveld are bound to lose condition during the winter and strategies should be put in place to ensure that body condition is conserved. It is good practice to supplement a protein lick like Molatek Winlick 50 ( V12086) Contact your Molatek technical advisor for guidance as to which would suit your animals best.

It is important to know what sort of veld you are using, in order to best supplement the diet of your herd or flock, should a shortage of grazing material arise.

 

Here is a rough guideline for the provinces and their veld types:

Western Cape: Sweetveld
Eastern Cape: Western region – Sweetveld
Eastern region- Sourveld
KZN: Sourveld, mixed veld and sweetveld
Mpumalanga: Sourveld
Limpopo: Mixed veld
Gauteng: Sourveld
North West: Western region – Sweetveld
Eastern region – Mixed veld
Free State: Western region – Sweetveld
Eastern region – Mixed veld and sourveld
Northern Cape: Sweetveld

Sheep farming – what you need to know

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Dr Vlok Ferreira

National Technical Manager Ruminants, RCL Foods

 

Many communal farmers and even rural residents with hopes of land in the future, are thinking of farming with sheep.  A lot of things need to be considered before you invest in a sheep farming enterprise.

Evaluating your resources

 

To run a successful sheep enterprise, you will want to efficiently produce high-quality lamb and wool that can be profitably marketed.  The first step is to evaluate the resources you have available.  Then you’ll need to design a sheep production system that will use those resources most efficiently.  The resources that you need to evaluate are:

 

1. Land: How much land is available and what is its productivity.  If all the forage dry matter produced on a hectare of land could be harvested as  hay and measured in tons, you would have an estimate of your land’s productive capacity.  Suppose you have 100 hectare veld pasture, of which 30 ha are low producing pasture and will produce 0.75 t per hectare, 30 ha are average and will produce 1.25 tons per ha and 30 ha are high producing and should produce 2.0 tons per hectare.  The total yearly pasture production would be 30 x 0.75 = 22.5 t, plus 30 x 1.25 = 37.5 t, plus 30 x 2 = 60 t.  This equals a total estimated hay equivalent of 120 tons of which 65% is utilisable by the sheep during grazing.  An average ewe requires 0.75 ton of pasture/year.  So in this example, you should have enough pasture for about 104 ewes (120t x 65% divided by 0.75).  I have chosen 100 ha for ease of calculation.  This is not necessarily an acceptable size for an economical sheep operation.  Remember that in certain areas some of the pasture had to be harvested as forage in the winter.  You must be prepared to provide hay for winter feed in the summer rainfall areas.

 

2. Machinery and Equipment: Do you have the equipment and machinery to harvest hay, cut pastures, etc.?  Or can you hire a contractor to do this?  Or should you plan on purchasing hay?  If you only need about 100 tons of hay, it may be cheaper and easier to buy the hay than to make it.

What about sheep equipment?  You will need proper fences, sorting pens, lambing pens, etc.  You will also need equipment for tail docking, castrating, ear tagging and possibly for shearing.  A building where you can keep all the equipment and sick animals if needed.

 

3. Markets: How will you market your products?  Are you planning to sell feeder lambs, slaughter lambs, breeding stock, wool or all of the above?  Are you planning to sell on a seasonal basis or have a more even cash flour with the lambs for sale throughout the year?  Your market is a valuable resource that must be studied.

 

4. Labour: Do you have the time to properly care for the sheep?  Sheep probably respond more to proper care and attention than any other farm animal.  For the most part, the labour is not hard, but they require quality time and labour.  You must have time to do the jobs when required and not put them off until next week or next month.  You must have time to observe the animals and recognize their requirements.

 

5. Capital: Do you have the capital or money available to get started, hold you until the sheep are in full production and may be see you through some dips or drought?  You need to carefully evaluate your financial resources before starting a farming enterprise.  Compare sheep farming with other alternatives.

 

6. Attitude: What is your attitude towards sheep farming?  Do you like them? Would you be willing to brave cold rains to feed and care for them?  Would you be willing to miss a social event to be sure the sheep were protected from marauding dogs?  If you do not have a positive attitude, do not read any further.

Establishing Production Goals and Management Systems

Once you evaluate your resources, you can set-up an overall management system that will use them efficiently and be profitable.  Sheep are amazingly adaptable.  Using different breeds and systems, you can set and meet your production goals.  The goals you set will depend on your resources, abilities, the ability of the sheep and the products you hope to produce.

Product choices:

 

1. Lamb for meat; Sell feeder lambs at 25-30 kg or keep and feed to 40-45 kg live weight. Market your lambs at Easter or other celebration times.

 

2. Breeding stock; both registered and/or commercial.

  • Wool; probably sold during a wool marketing agent or develop a speciality market for spinning or felting.3. Milk; Sheep’s milk for cheese is popular in some areas of the world, but milk breeds aren’t readily available in South Africa. However, interest is increasing.

The level of production, especially of lamb, can vary from less than one lamb per ewe per year to more than two lambs per ewe per year.  Choosing the product to be produced and a production goal depends on the breed of sheep and your management system.  Each breed represents a given genotype that is best in some situations and not in others.  For example, if you want to produce only fine wool, Merino might be the breed of choice.  A production system may use a combination of breeds to meet specific goals.  Of course, your success will ultimately depend on good management, nutrition, technology, disease control and marketing.  The management system you choose have to make maximum use of the natural pasture growth.  For example in the summer rainfall area, lamb in May if you have maize crop residues available and market lambs in November / December. In this example without any crop residues it is better to lamb in the spring when green veld pasture is available.

 

Any successful sheep producer keeps up with day-to-day management tasks, and does them properly. Can you assist a ewe before and after lambing if needed or recognize more serious problems?

 

  • Docking: How do you remove a tail from a young lamb?
  • Vaccination: Can you recognize the important diseases?  Do you have a vaccination schedule?
  • Weaning: Do you know about the weaning process?
  • Ram care: Can you care for rams even during the non-breeding season?
  • Internal and external parasite control: Every sheep has parasites.  Can you set up an effective control program?

    Markets for Lamb and Wool

Most wool is marketed through one of the wool marketing agents, although some is sold to other buyers or, hand-spinners, and very small quantities are custom made into yarn, cloth or blankets.

Lamb markets need further development and require a more consistent supply.  Lambs can be marketed through local auctions, to large abattoirs or directly to the consumer.

Where Do You Get Sheep?

If you decide to start a sheep enterprise, where you get your starter flock is critical.  It can be difficult to get exactly the breed you want and number you want at a reasonable cost.  Some beginning producers simply started with whatever sheep are available and set up a breeding program to create the preferred genotypes by proper ram selection and careful culling.  Obtaining the proper sheep is sometimes difficult, but exceedingly important.  The desirable sheep characteristics are:

 

  • A long breeding season or a year round breeding season
  • multiple births
  • early sexual maturity
  • high average daily gains
  • desirable meat-type carcasses

    Feeding Sheep

Sheep are efficient users of roughage.  In fact, they can get a larger portion of their nutrients from pasture and hay than beef cattle.  They eat most of the weeds and, with proper pasture management, can significantly boost production of many native pastures over the long term.

The roughage must, at certain times, be supplemented with minerals, proteins and/or grains, or other concentrated feeds to meet nutritional requirements, especially for ewes during late pregnancy or lactation and for rapidly growing lambs.  Salt/mineral combinations with the needed trace elements are available.  Copper is toxic to sheep at lower concentration than it is for most other livestock.  So read labels to be sure copper levels will not harm sheep.

Smaller farms usually use small square bales, although big round bales are common.  The big round bales are popular and require little labour if you have the right handling equipment.

A beginning sheep producer must also decide whether harvested forage should be purchased or produced.  Farmers who are adding on a sheep enterprise probably already have the production capability needed, but others may be wise to purchase hay.  If you start with 50 or fewer ewes, purchasing extra feed if needed seems reasonable.  Remember that any investment in equipment must be paid for by the sheep.  A small flock cannot cover the costs of large tractors, forage harvesters and other major equipment.

Information

The best information often comes from other sheep farmers in your area who are willing to spend some of their valuable time with you and help you make decisions.  Consider volunteering to work with another sheep farmer for a few weeks to learn more about the job.

Vergemaklik aanvulling tydens dragtigheid en laktasie

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Deur dr Vlok Ferreira, nasionale tegniese bestuurder herkouers, RCL Foods Veevoerafdeling

Kies lekke volgens seisoene – Dr Vlok Ferreira

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Molatek Voerskenking – Sutherland

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

Rearing/Enerblock Copy

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

FARMING PRACTICES-SHEEP-REARING OF YOUNG EWES AND RAMS: PRODUCTION LICKS

ENERBLOCK

Molatek Enerblock is used on high quality pasture to increase growth rates of animals. It can be used for the rearing of young animals on pastures and for mature animals in a poor condition. Enerblock stimulates wool growth and milk production in lactating ewes.

RECOMMENDED INTAKE

Cattle g/day 1000 – 1500
Sheep g/day 250 – 350

Rearing/Enerblock

Products
Energy
Molasses Meal
Natural Protein Concentrate
Bypass
Fattening
Beef Fat 33+
Feedlot Concentrate
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Dairy
Dairy Master Concentrate
Pro 16
Sheep Fattening/Calf Concentrate
Cattle and Sheep Maintenance and Production Lick Mixtures
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Foslick
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Production Supplements, Energy, Finishing and Rearing on Green Pastures
Background 18
Elite Block
Lamb And Ewe Lick
Master 20
Cattle, Sheep and Game Maintenance and Production Blocks
Enerblock
Fosblock
Multi Block 28
Trophy Block
Winter Block 40
Drought Feed
Drought Supplement
Farming Practices
Cattle
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Backgrounding: Feedlot Preparation
Dry Pasture
Green Pastures
Cows On Dry Winterveld And Crop Residues: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Dryveld 46
Lick Mix 87
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Block 40
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late Summer Pasture: Transition Licks
Condition Lick
Lick Mix 87
Multi Block 28
Winter Veld Concentrate
Late-Pregnant Cows At The End Of Winter: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Preparation Of Bulls: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Dry Winter Veld: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Lick Mix 87
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Protein Lick 40
Winlick 50
Winter Veld Concentrate
Rearing Of Weaner Calves On Green Summer Veld: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Master 20
Summer Green Pasture: Maintenance Lick
Fosblock
Foslick
Sheep
Feedlot Finishing: Complete Feeds And Cafeteria Diets
Adaptation Diets
Finishing Diets
Early And Mid Pregnancy: Maintenance Licks
Condition Lick
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Finishing On Pasture: Production Supplement
Green Pasture
Flush Feed: Production Licks
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Late Pregnancy And Early Lactation: Production Licks
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Preparation Of Rams: Auctions And Shows
Cafeteria Diets
Complete Feeds
Rearing Of Young Ewes And Rams: Production Licks
Background 18
Condition Lick
Enerblock
Master 20
Multi Block 28
Wool Master Concentrate
Wool Sheep Lick 28
Dairy Cattle
Dairy Cows: Lactating And Dry Cows
Dairy Meal Mixtures
Dry Cow Mixtures
Rearing Of Dairy Heifers: Day 1 To Steam-Up
Calf Grower Diet
Calf Starter Diet
Heifer Mixed Concentrate
Game
Lick Supplements: Maintenance Licks
Dry Pasture
Green Pasture
Feed Trough, Creep Feed Pen Measurements

FARMING PRACTICES-SHEEP-REARING OF YOUNG EWES AND RAMS: PRODUCTION LICKS

ENERBLOCK

Molatek Enerblock is used on high quality pasture to increase growth rates of animals. It can be used for the rearing of young animals on pastures and for mature animals in a poor condition. Enerblock stimulates wool growth and milk production in lactating ewes.

RECOMMENDED INTAKE

Cattle g/day 1000 – 1500
Sheep g/day 250 – 350